Posts Tagged ‘Apple Sapphire Patent’

by Matt Margolis

News broke Friday that Apple acquired Luxvue Technology Corporation for an undisclosed amount of money.  Luxvue  Technology was unknown to nearly everyone until their acquisition by Apple put them in the spot light.   I think the biggest question you want to know is, how can I make money from this?

According to Crunchbase Luxvue Technology was incorporated in 2009, based in Santa Clara, California and they develop low-power, micronLED based displays for consumer electronics applications.

LuxVue Technology Corporation develops low-power, microLED-based displays for consumer electronics applications. LuxVue Technology Corporation was formerly known as Papierlos Corporation. The company was incorporated in 2009 and is based in Santa Clara, California.

LuxVue Technology Corporation develops low-power, microLED-based displays for consumer electronics applications. LuxVue Technology Corporation was formerly known as Papierlos Corporation. The company was incorporated in 2009 and is based in Santa Clara, California. – See more at: http://www.crunchbase.com/organization/luxvue-technology#sthash.iBHexiMz.dpuf
LuxVue Technology Corporation develops low-power, microLED-based displays for consumer electronics applications. LuxVue Technology Corporation was formerly known as Papierlos Corporation. The company was incorporated in 2009 and is based in Santa Clara, California. – See more at: http://www.crunchbase.com/organization/luxvue-technology#sthash.iBHexiMz.dpuf

LED is very interesting topic, first of all LED is more efficient than fluorescent lights.  Second of all, LED is becoming the standard light bulb all around the world, one bulb at a time.  One of the most vital ingredients in LED lighting is sapphire. What makes sapphire so special?

Synthetic single-crystal sapphire is a single crystal form of corundum, Al2O3, also known as alpha-alumina, alumina, and single crystal Al2O3. Sapphire is aluminum oxide in the purest form with no porosity or grain boundaries, making it theoretically dense. The combination of favorable chemical, electrical, mechanical, optical, surface, thermal, and durability properties make sapphire a preferred material for high performance system and component designs.

One of the biggest issues with battery life are displays that drain your battery just from emitting light.  LED lights are known for their durability, low energy consumption and long-lasting life span.  What if an electronic device display shared was also composed of LED?  How much many hours would be added to your battery per charge?

Apple’s sapphire partner GT Advanced Technologies is currently producing sapphire for consumer electronics as well as the LED industry (LED customers currently exclude Apple).  GT is an expert in producing sapphire for LED as well as sapphire for consumer electronics.  The sapphire used for LED lighting does not need to be as perfect because it’s not the same as a sapphire cover screen that you look through to see your display.  The sapphire layer is the body (bottom) layer that the LED display would be stacked on.

Apple acquired LuxVue Technology along with its long list of patents.  One of the patents that sparked my interest was Luxvue’s (now Apple’s) LED Array patent.  What is interesting about this patent is that the bottom layer that makes up the LED display includes not only sapphire as an option but also SiC (Silicon Carbide).  According to the patent both materials can be transparent, but currently sapphire is drastically less expensive of the two options but SiC has a significant performance benefit over sapphire.   SiC most likely won’t reach consumer electronic products for several years (5?, 10?, 15? years) at the earliest, but the switch from Si (Silicon) to SiC (Silicon Carbide) is currently underway in Power Electronics.

Conclusion

  • In 2014 Apple is going to be the first high volume consumer electronics manufacturer to cover its devices with sapphire.
  • Apple is going to adopt LED displays within the next 12 to 18 months across its portfolio of iDevices
  • GT Advanced Technologies will produce and process hundreds of millions of sapphire substrates annually that will end up below Apple’s LED displays before the end of 2015.
  • Apple’s adoption of LED displays will add a “new significant layer” of reoccurring revenue to GT’s top line before the end of 2015
  • The relationship between GT Advanced Technologies and Apple goes much deeper than just sapphire cover screens

 

For your reading pleasure Luxvue’s (now Apple’s) LED Array patent is highlighted below.

A micro light emitting diode (LED) and a method of forming an array of micro LEDs for transfer to a receiving substrate are described. For example, the receiving substrate may be, but is not limited to, a display substrate, a lighting substrate, a substrate with functional devices such as transistors or integrated circuits (ICs), or a substrate with metal redistribution lines. In an embodiment, a micro LED structure includes a micro p-n diode, a reflective metallization stack below a bottom surface of the micro p-n diode, and an electrically insulating spacer spanning a portion of sidewalls of the reflective metallization stack and laterally surrounding the reflective metallization stack, where the reflective metallization stack is between the micro p-n diode and a bonding layer formed on a substrate. In an embodiment, the bonding layer has a liquidus temperature of approximately 350° C. or lower, and more specifically approximately 200° C. or lower. In an embodiment, the bonding layer is an alloy bonding layer. For example, the bonding layer may be an indium-silver (InAg) alloy. Depending upon the manner of formation, the bonding layer can have a uniform concentration, or a gradient concentration.

In a particular embodiment, growth substrate 101 is sapphire, and the p-n diode layer 110 is formed of GaN. Despite the fact that sapphire has a larger lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch with respect to GaN, sapphire is reasonably low cost, widely available and its transparency is compatible with excimer laser-based lift-off (LLO) techniques. In another embodiment, another material such as SiC may be used as the growth substrate 101 for a GaN p-n diode layer 110. Like sapphire, SiC substrates may be transparent. Several growth techniques may be used for growth of p-n diode layer 110 such as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). GaN, for example, can be grown by simultaneously introducing trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ammonia (NH3) precursors into a reaction chamber with the sapphire growth substrate 101 being heated to an elevated temperature such as 800° C. to 1,000° C. In the particular embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1A, p-n diode layer 110 may include a bulk GaN layer 112, an n-doped layer 114, a quantum well 116 and p-doped layer 118. The bulk GaN layer 112 may be n-doped due to silicon or oxygen contamination, or intentionally doped with a donor such as silicon. N-doped GaN layer 114 may likewise be doped with a donor such as silicon, while p-doped layer 118 may be doped with an acceptor such as magnesium. A variety of alternative p-n diode configurations may be utilized to form p-n diode layer 110. Likewise, a variety of single quantum well (SQW) or multiple quantum well (MQW) configurations may be utilized to form quantum well 116. In addition, various buffer layers may be included as appropriate. In one embodiment, the sapphire growth substrate 101 has a thickness of approximately 200 μm, bulk GaN layer 112 has a thickness of approximately 0.5 μm-5 μm, n-doped layer 114 has a thickness of approximately 0.1 μm-3 μm, quantum well layer 116 has a thickness less than approximately 0.3 μm and p-doped layer 118 has a thickness of approximately 0.1 μm-1 μm.

In the Figure below a layer of Sapphire and or SiC is represented by “101”

LED Display

 

Full Disclosure: I am long GTAT and Apple’s newest acquisition will result in a “new significant layer” of reoccurring sapphire revenue from Apple, which is likely to begin before the end of 2015.

 

 

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by Matt Margolis

An Apple patent for continuous sapphire growth was brought to light earlier today and believe it or not Apple is not done improving the economic cost of making high volume sapphire.  Apple was granted a heat exchangers in sapphire processing patent on March 20, 2014.  The patent allows for sequentially arranging one sapphire growth furnace to heat a second furnace to process aluminum oxide.  Additionally, the invention allows for the creation of a heating system composed of a heat battery and a “plurality” of furnaces.  The heating system further includes an insulated network of piping in communication with the heat battery and each of the plurality of furnaces. Heat is transferred within the system between the heat battery and the plurality of furnaces via the network of piping and the heat exchangers.   Apple has patented the ability to create large network of sapphire growth furnaces that are fully integrated from a central heat battery and heat source.  Apple’s contractors have likely been retrofitting the facility with a matrix of integrated piping that will travel from the heater to the “heat battery” and flow to each individual furnace assembled and installed within the facility.  I recently reported that the Mesa facility has 9 distinct phases and it now appears clearer that each phase will be designed and assembled to custom fit the sapphire growth needs for each section.  What is even more interesting is the new patent for heat exchangers can be applied to each of the various sapphire growth processes.   Some highlights and images provided within the heat exchangers in sapphire processing patent are listed below:

 

Systems and methods are presented for efficient heating during production of corundum. One embodiment may take the form of a system for processing corundum including a first furnace and a second furnace. The first and second furnaces are sequentially arranged and heat from the first furnace is subsequently used to heat the second furnace.

 

Another embodiment may take the form of a method of operating multiple furnaces in sapphire processing. The method includes operating a first furnace and routing heat from the first furnace to a second furnace. The heat from the first furnace preheats the second furnace. The method also includes operating the second furnace subsequent to the operation of the first furnace.

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One embodiment may include linking all heating and cooling systems of the growers and furnaces together so that much less heat is wasted and greater efficiencies could be realized. Specifically, furnaces (either or both annealing and growth furnaces) could have their heating and cooling systems linked to other systems through heat exchanges. By staggering the processing schedules among groups of machines, heat that is removed from one furnace could be fed directly into another furnace to reduce the energy input requirement of its heating step. This could be achieved using some thermal fluid (water/pressurized steam, alcohol, solutions, molten salts, and so on) and an insulated network of piping within a cell of linked machines. As used herein, the term “furnace” may generally refer to a heating system or device which facilitates achieving temperatures for either growth or annealing of sapphire. As such, the furnaces referred to herein may include heat sources (e.g., heating elements), insulation, crucibles, and so forth.

 

Yet another embodiment may take the form of a heating system for sapphire production. The heating system includes a heat battery and a plurality of furnaces. Each furnace includes a heat exchanger. The heating system further includes an insulated network of piping in communication with the heat battery and each of the plurality of furnaces. Heat is transferred within the system between the heat battery and the plurality of furnaces via the network of piping and the heat exchangers.

 

Some common and distinct growth methods include Kyropoulos, Verneuil , Czochralski, flux, heat exchange method (“HEM”), hydrothermal, vertical horizontal gradient freezing (“VHGF”), Stepanov (i.e., edge-defined film-fed growth (“EFG”)), and Bridgman (i.e., horizontal moving growth). The Kryopoulos, Verneuil, Czochralski, flux, and hydrothermal processes generate a sapphire boule, whereas the EFG, VHGF and horizontal moving growth processes generate sapphire members having continuous cross-sections. It should be appreciated that although specific examples described herein may refer to a particular process for sapphire growth the examples are not intended to be limiting. As such, the present techniques, systems and methods may be used in conjunction with each of the various sapphire growth processes.

 

Figure 8 below shows how the Mesa facility is likely laid out with a continuous flow of piping and interconnected sapphire growth furnaces and annealing furnaces with equipment closely lined up in an organized matrix to form the most impressive sapphire production facility in the world.

 

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Figure 9 below exhibits how Apple can automate the process to take heat from the first furnace and heat a second first and then taking the heat from the second furnace to heat a new first furnace.  You need to think of the the mathematical constant known as Pi because this invention allows for a limitless amount of heat to be transferred from one furnace to the next furnace

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Mosaic Theory

I’m going to apologize in advance on this one but I cannot stay inside the box whatsoever.  Some of you have commented on the Mosaic theory and I’m going to attempt to push the limits in my next few items.

Apple has patented a process to use a “heat battery,” what is a heat battery?  According to a 2011 report researchers have found a way to turn the sun’s energy, geo-thermal energy or even fuel cell energy by using the thermochemical approach.  The thermochemical approach takes energy that is captured in the configuration of certain molecules which can then release energy on demand to produce usable heat.  And unlike conventional solar-thermal systems, which require very effective insulation and even then gradually let the heat leak away, the heat-storing chemicals could remain stable for years.  Some details from the 2011 report are below:

In effect, explained Grossman, this discovery makes it possible to produce a “rechargeable heat battery” that can repeatedly store and release heat gathered from sunlight or other sources. In principle, Grossman said, a fuel made from fulvalene diruthenium, when its stored heat is released, “can get as hot as 200 degrees C, plenty hot enough to heat your home, or even to run an engine to produce electricity.”

Compared to other approaches to solar energy, he said, “it takes many of the advantages of solar-thermal energy, but stores the heat in the form of a fuel. It’s reversible, and it’s stable over a long term. You can use it where you want, on demand. You could put the fuel in the sun, charge it up, then use the heat, and place the same fuel back in the sun to recharge.”

 

Apple is reportedly using solar power and geo-thermal energy to help power the Mesa Facility.  According to the contract document Apple will be using fuel cells, roof solar arrays, a solar basin and an Electrical Substation to manage the power supply to the Mesa sapphire facility.

Landlord further reserves a right of entry as reasonably necessary to maintain, repair, operate and monitor (or to cause the applicable utility provider to do the same) the Roof Solar Array, the Solar Basin, the Fuel Cell, and the Electrical Substation

 

GT Advanced recently posted an Electrical Engineer / PLC Controls position (see image below) on their website to focus on “Electrical design for power control and power distribution” and to “Provide support for customers as they configure their plant control systems to interface with our equipment.”  This new position also requires “Experience with industrial power systems including transformers, power controllers, and distribution equipment”.  Apple appears to have invented a new heat exchangers process that will rely on using a centralized “heat battery” can hold energy and would need to be distributed and interfaced with GT’s sapphire growth equipment inside Mesa.

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Conclusion

Apple and GT Advanced Technology have in my opinion designed and developed the most integrated and comprehensive sapphire growth facility in the world.  Apple’s recent patents, specifically the  continuous sapphire growth and the heat exchangers in sapphire processing patent are game changers in terms of yield per furnace and cost per sapphire cover screens.   I want everyone to picture the Mesa Matrix with me.  You are envisioning miles of large piping installed within the facility that will carry heat from a heater to the “heat battery,” where the energy and power can be managed by a switch.  The heat battery will carry the heat necessary to grow the sapphire and operate the annealing furnaces.

On top of the matrix of integrated piping to carry the heat to the furnaces to grow the sapphire crystal each furnace has a continuous supply of raw ingredients and heat to grow sapphire around the clock 24/7 and produce beautiful ribbons or sheets of sapphire crystals.  We need to remember that the heat exchangers patent can be applied to various sapphire growth methods including EFG and VHGF.  Per the Cradley Crystals website, “EFG method for growing sapphire is used for growing sapphire of any given shape, including tubes, rods, sheets, and fibers. EFG technology makes it possible to get unique shapes and sealed assemblies”.   Yes, I repeat any shape including sheets or tubes.

Figure 8 depicts the continuous growth process to load alumina into the crucible that will produce sapphire growth ribbons (sheets).

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Figure 6 depicts cutting the sapphire ribbons (sheets) that have been grown outside of the growth chamber.

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Apple has managed to take an independent ASF sapphire growth furnace that produces 200 kg+ boule every 25 days and turn their Mesa sapphire factory into a sapphire growth matrix.  Apple has patented a way to create an integrated heating process taking energy provided by mother earth, store it, manage the power and send the energy in the form of heat through miles of piping within the Mesa, AZ sapphire facility to power thousands of furnaces in a way no one ever thought possible.  In addition to the game changing method to provide heat to a sapphire growth furnace, Apple has patented a process that can continuously grow sheets of sapphire crystal in ANY shape their hearts desire.  Apple’s Mesa facility production design will significantly lower the cost of growing sapphire crystals due to the continuous sapphire growth method.  The patently process will result in less waste, easier fabrication process as well as a significant increase in sapphire crystal yield per sapphire furnace.  The continuous sapphire growth patent eliminates the need to start and stop up batch runs to produce sapphire boules, which dramatically increase the sapphire yield per furnace.  The sapphire sheets will significantly reduce the fabrication costs versus the cost to harvest a sapphire cover screen from a sapphire boule.  The amount of sapphire produced from a ASF furnace will also increase due to the unique shape and form of the sapphire sheets that are produced.

This invention is like going from a bread maker in the year 1700 to a bread maker in the year 2014.  The bread maker in 1700, mixed the ingredients by hand, used an open flame and made bread in a crucible.  After each loaf of bread was baked the bread maker had to clean out the crucible, restart the fire and bake each loaf one by one.  Conversely, the 2014 bread maker has an assembly line that takes the raw ingredients and mixes them in a massive storage container.  The container has automated process to express the mixed ingredients into crucibles that are shaped any which way.  The crucibles carrying the ingredients are carried along an automated belt to a very large oven that transforms the raw ingredients into bread as the crucibles pass through the oven.

The key point here is you can throw out any previous calculation on cost of sapphire screens, because the method being used by every other sapphire growth manufacturer is still stuck in the year 1700.  Apple and GT have advanced the design and method to grow sapphire by hundreds of years so to speak.   The sapphire that will be produced at the Mesa sapphire facility owned by Apple and operated by GT will be mind-blowing.   These new patent developments open up the door that Apple can cover any iDevice they want with sapphire crystal in 2014.  Apple and GT have revolutionized the sapphire crystal growth process and it’s time for me to take off my cap and give both companies a standing ovation for their innovation, vision and ability to deliver game changing technology at an affordable price!

 

I hope you have all enjoyed the journey through the Mesa Sapphire Matrix and that each and every one of you now has a full vision of what it will look inside Apple’s 1.3 million square foot sapphire manufacturing facility.

 

 

 

Full Disclosure I am long GTAT and have no plans to buy or sell any holdings in the next 72 hours